tv BBC World News America PBS November 21, 2011 6:00pm-6:30pm EST
from small businesses to major corporations. what can we do for you? >> and now, "bbc world news america." >> this is bbc world news america reporting from washington. i'm kathy kaye. we have been here before, cairo's tahrir square once again occupied by protestors wanting to oust the leaders they brought in just months ago. >> none of these protesters can quite believe they are back out on the streets of cairo over the political freedom they secured nine months ago, but here they are. >> super committee, super flop. u.s. lawmakers tasked with cutting the deficit can only agree on one thing, there is no deal. and these can does are headed to scotland.
their main job, make more pandas. >> welcome to our viewers on pbs in america and elsewhere around the globe. nine months after egypt's longtime leader hosni mubarak was driven from power, protestors return to central cairo. they say the regime that has replaced the old dictatorship has been too slow in handing over power. after three days between -- of clashes between demonstrators and police, the entire cabinet has submitted its resignation. >> outside dated interior ministry, a longtime symbol of authoritarian rule in egypt, third consecutive days of riot police.
it has been seen around the globe on facebook, twitter, and youtube. disturbing pictures are showing protesters being viciously beaten. the unconscious, completely overcome by tear gas, dozens, even hundreds of pro-democracy campaigners rushed to tahrir square this afternoon. they used their scooters and moped at times to ferry the bodies back for treatment. some have died, suffocating under the affects of tear gas. the one man wants to tell us what happened to him, struggling to get his words out. moments later, he collapsed into the arms of his friends. it is almost as though the february revolution and all that
was achieved in tahrir square never happened. >> none of these protesters can quite believe they are back out on the streets of cairo calling for those political freedoms they thought they had secured nine months ago. but here they are, fighting, some of them being killed, many of them being wounded, and demanding the military get out of politics altogether. >> it was perhaps naive to assume that after forcing hosni mubarak to resign if the entire system would collapse. >> at the time, people were euphoric about it. they could not believe they had toppled more garecht. but that was just the tip of the iceberg. >> the protesters said they will not give ground again until the military has seized power altogether. it is no easy task in a country where the generals are the absolute authority.
roadside medics treated at a steady stream of casualties. thousands more protesters are right in the square. in less than a week of this country is due to hold its first truly democratic elections. it is difficult to see how they can go ahead in such circumstances. >> just a brief time ago i spoke to my colleague in tahrir square. she summed up the mood where people are protesting again nine months after they thought their freedom was secure. >> egyptians in tahrir square, who can say how many there are now? they're talking about a second revolution. many of the protest leaders said they should never have left the square until they were sure we had achieved our demands. and what happened in egypt? was it really a revolution? was it a coup d'etat? it was probably a bit of both.
we have heard almost the same slogan we heard months ago -- leave, go away. they said that to mubarak and he left. now they are saying it to the military and egypt is in a deep, deep crisis. with a week to go before elections, what is expected to be the first truly free and fair elections in living memory. but this is still the political space that the egyptians understand. at least those people are still coming to tahrir square and they're coming in larger numbers. there are protests also in alexandria, suarez and other places. >> do you think the protesters in tahrir square can have the same clout that they have in february and get rid of this military regime? >> what it was about february -- at least, the main rally cry was about bringing down one man.
he was toppled. this is about changing an entire system. the military has made clear in the documents that have been released that they want to have a controlling stake. they want to protect privileges. there a word about the future. they want to have what they see as a guardian role in the constitution. all of this is making the people in this square not just nervous, but angry and very disciplined -- disappointed. >> thank you very much. in what is being called a significant ratcheting up of pressure on iran, washington joined britain, canada, and france in announcing new sanctions against tehran. the measures, which target their energy and financial sectors, are designed to pressure to run into stopping its nuclear weapons program. secretary of the reflectance said it is part of a coordinated
response. -- secretary hillary clinton said it is part of a coordinated response. >> this is the strongest official warning we can give that any transaction with iran poses a serious risk of deception or diversion. these steps were accompanied today by complementary measures by the u.k. and canada, and we expect additional sanctions by other international partners in the days ahead. >> for more on this new international effort against iran, i am joined by my guest from the endowment for national progress -- international progress. what is your reading of the -- of what the international community has done to iran? but these things have to be perfectly caliber become a calibrated enough to make it painful for iran to continue forward in its transactions, but weak enough to maintain this international coalition, which
includes countries like china and russia. the reality is, you cannot reach that purpose calibration because when oil prices hovered around $100 per barrel and iran been increasingly isolated from economies like the united states and increasingly aligned with countries like china and russia, you can do this, but not enough to harm them. >> they say these are the best available sanctions that they can do, but you have underlined the point. if russia and china have not signed on, which they have not -- and i suspect there will not be part of the next group -- do you think things will change into iran -- change in tehran? >> i think it would rather endure hardship economically rather than be denied its political aims. when you are under pressure,
never compromise because that projects weakness. and there will be invited more pressure. >> but we have seen a striking change in tone from the obama administration. president obama saying this evening that they will go about isolating iran. very different from how we spoke when he first came into office. >> i think that is after two years of unprecedented and and reciprocated overtures that president obama made to the iranian regime. i think it's clear that both countries -- including china and russia -- that the problem lies more in tehran that it does in washington. but they will not forsake their own interests for energy just to please the united states, and i think this challenge will remain. >> now to syria. while foreign pressure mounts on bashar al-assad to end the
violence in his country, the turkish president has told the bbc is preparing for the worst across the border. latest tourist attraction, a panorama of historic turkish conquest that launched the pack -- the ottoman empire. turkey is once again wielding its power, influential in the arab spring, and prowling the pressure on syria. in london today, turkey did not want to intervene in syria, but is bracing for the worse. >> you are not ruling out the possibility, for example, of buffering, even if their support for this from the arab league. >> let's see what decisions they will take. >> there are some people who will say, turkey was once the great power in the region, the
ottoman empire. are you looking for turkey to be the center of this part of the world? >> we do not have any hidden agenda in the region. is showing inence other ways. -- >> turkeys into with a showing in other ways. it's wildly successful soap operas have gripped the region. the latest is a rags to riches story about salemme and the mind of a cent. -- suleman the magnificent. turkey has always argued is a bridge between east and west, and here in istanbul it literally straddles two continents. this is european soil, but all the time carrying commuters across the waters to the asian side. and its appeal is that it offers a modern movie -- muslim
democracy with european and values. but when you look at its human- rights record, there's a problem. amazingly, there are more jonas in jail here that neither china nor iran. -- more journalists in jail here than either of china or iran. but the president disagrees. >> they are spring is being felt around the region. now to the u.s. it is being called the super committee, but the results look pretty pathetic. charged with cutting the government's deficit, the 12- member panel, house democrats and half republicans, has now admitted failure. they had said they hoped the joint efforts could build progress, but it also raises the question of whether anything can be done in washington.
>> this committee has the opportunity to show the american people we can still come together and put politics aside and solve a problem that is plaguing our country. >> but the committee did not show the people. they did not come together, and the deficit problem is not fixed. in television studios yesterday, there was only recrimination. >> i have never said no to that offer. because it did not raise taxes. >> i'm glad we started there because what john just said is patently not true. >> the super committee did not even bother meeting. president obama beside a jobs bill for veterans today, small compensation for the deficit figure. >> my message to congress is, keep going, keep working, keep finding ways to put partisanship aside and find ways to work.
>> members are already working hard, campaigns. and that ishe issue, that politics is trumping sound economics. it is the problem italians and greeks know very well. they gave up on politicians and got economists to run their country. christine lagarde for speaker, anyone? >> where do we go from here? joining me to discuss it is the bbc's adam brooks. are you surprised the super committee came out and said, sorry, we cannot do our jobs? >> unfortunately, not. there has been anticipation this is what would happen. the president pointed out there is no danger of america being downgraded after defaulting on its debt. he also said there is nothing else to stop congress tcoming
together to find an agreement on the budget deficit, to try to stop the automatic cuts kicking in. he said he would veto any attempt to do away with those automatic cuts. there are already muttering in congress that they would like to do away with those automatic cuts that kicking in as a result of the congressional failure to agree. >> they decided to try to avoid blame each other, but is it possible to point the figure of one group over another? >> you can be sure there'll be finger-pointing in the end. there is difference over economics and whether you should have tax cuts or tax increases, to what degree you should tackle the deficit by making cuts. these are big differences between the two parties. expect the beginning of a new
round of very brutal politics over how deficit-reduction gets done. >> if possible between now and the 2012 presidential elections for an issue of this scale to be addressed? >> the year is a very long time. anything with regard to deficit- reduction can happen. perhaps we should not expand to much energy hoping it will. >> still to come, cracking down in the world's cocaine capital. we go to columbia where the new government's -- to colombia where the new government tries to get its hands in the drug war. the more than three decades after the fall of the khmer rouge, it committee has begun hearing about the drastic cuts in cambodia. >> these old men used to control cambodia. now they stand charged with
genocide and crimes against humanity. the khmer rouge took over cambodia in 1975. >> none of the accused teacher ever sold his own hands with blood, but each of them -- of the accused here ever soiled his own hands with blood, but each of them either individually or together past policies that unleashed a flood of blood in this country. >> many were turned intolaru svs working in the rice fields. many died of disease. those who resisted were tortured and murdered. it has taken more than 30 years, but this u.n.-backed tribunal is finally calling mon-khmer respond leaders to account. -- is finally calling khmer rouge leaders to account.
>> i want peace in the next life. >> the descriptions of atrocities went on all day. they were a little short of staggering. among those listening, if photographer's pictures were used in court to illustrate the evacuation. >> i think the biggest question that people have, myself included, is the a-list of leaders, why did you have to kill so many people? for what reason? we know what happened and now we would like to know why. >> this trial may be the best and last chance to solve this mystery. >> visiting europe this week, the colombian president is on a charm offensive to boost trade while seeking help with this courage of drug trafficking.
-- with the skirt of drug trafficking. he has become one of the region's most popular presidents. but the drug trade still threatens the country's progress. >> year high in the mountains of central colombia, the world's cocaine capital, the coca plant and the west drug addiction has written five decades of war. many have disappeared and cartels destroyed, but illegal drugs continue. the president here is a reformer, and a popular one, insisting there have been inroads against drugs. >> it is still a problem, and we recognize it. that is why we have to fight drug trafficking with all our determination, because as long as the people in the u.k. some of coke, or in new york or in
paris, we will suffer here. this is a problem of national security. this is what funds illegal groups. >> groups like the revolutionary form of columbia. as their leader was killed this month. a key victory against the group, which even other rivals say is falling apart. >> it has been losing the war. farc has been militarily and strategically defeated and now has only a small presence i can do harm. >> the government may be beating the revolutionary groups, but has not yet sworn -- won the war against drugs. it is a dangerous corridor run by militia and mafia. until that problem can be
solved, the plans for the country's future are still under threat. the biggest challenge is giving land back to people displaced by decades of violence, and addressing former human rights abuses. >> another big challenge is to leave this country in peace. that does not depend only on me. it depends also on the people who think that surviving means they can achieve anything. >> the economy is moving -- booming, infrastructure is slowly improving, but this area outside the cities is still a long way off. >> make sure to join us tomorrow for the second of the report, looking at how illegal gold mining is being used to fund the drug trade and is taking a serious toll on columbia's environment. now to a rather different trade, which is sure to please any
visitors to scotland at the zoo. two visitors are having their from china as part of a conservation effort. it is not a cheap endeavor, and scott and hopes they will breed it to pay for their passage. >> meet sunshine. he is 8 years old, a little bit grubby, and his favorite pastime is munching gbabo. -- bamboo. the one next door is sweet. both are being shipped to edinburgh, part of china's conservation effort. the hope is that they will make. the problem, pandas are notoriously fickle and only one panda ever born in captivity was reintroduced into the wild, and
it died soon after. >> it will pay 7,000 pounds a year for each pair, plus 70,000 pounds per year for their bamboo have it. and there is no guarantee that they will pair up. >> they must like each other if there is it -- for there to be a mutual attraction. if they do not come but they will walk away and nothing will happen. >> china's breeding is producing about 30 cubs a year. most through artificial insemination because the bears are not good at reading naturally. the females are only for a for one day a year. the mountain ranges of sichuan is under pressure. the bamboo was dying off and china as a breakneck growth in the cities is coming ever closer. the national park was created 30 years ago to help conserve the
panda. today, it gets 2 million visitors, mostly wealthy chinese starting to spend their money on leisure time. and has even become a popular backdrop for wedding photos. there are no wild pandas here now. the old ones you will find are the chief souvenirs'. the real ones have died or moved away. he thinks development has pushed the panda's out. >> think about it, if a place is full of tourists, will pandas continue to exist there? it is not possible. the only thing they can do is migrate elsewhere. >> the soon, sunshine and sweetie will be moving, too. they will stay in edinburgh for 10 years. the zoo is hoping it will double their attendance.
but in the wild, their preservation is ever more precarious. >> who could not like sunshine and sweetie? they are too cute. a quick reminder of our main story before we go. and we bring you pictures from tahrir square in cairo where protesters are back out in force. it is the third day in a row they have been out there. they are dissatisfied with the state of change in the country and say that the military government that they helped to bring in nine months ago after toppling hosni mubarak has not been quick enough in handing over power. tonight, the entire cabinet offered to resign because of these protests and because of the violence that is back in tahrir square in cairo. that brings today's program to a close. you can get updates on our website. to reach me and most of the bbc